These range from 25 to 35 mm (0.98 to 1.38 in) long and 10–18 mm (0.39–0.71 in) wide and are round at one end and more narrow and pointed at the other.  Within the species itself, six subspecies are generally recognised:, The Eurasian sparrowhawk is a small bird of prey with short, broad wings and a long tail, both adaptations to manoeuvring through trees. It reported that 56% of racing pigeons were lost each year but that the proportion taken by Eurasian sparrowhawks – "often blamed for major losses" – was less than 1%, with at least 2% taken by peregrine falcons. , A study of Eurasian sparrowhawks in southern Scotland found that ringed birds which had been raised on "high grade" territories were recovered in greater proportion than birds which came from "low grade" territories. When the eggs are laid, a lining of fine twigs or bark chippings is added. The African forms may represent a separate species but have usually been considered as subspecies of the Shikra.  This species is similar in size to the Levant sparrowhawk, but larger than the shikra (the calls are however different); the male is only slightly larger than the merlin.  The name Spearhafoc (later Sparhawk, Sparrowhawk) was in use as a personal name in England before the Norman conquest in 1066. It has also been blamed for decreases in passerine populations. , In the UK, the failure rate at the egg stage had decreased from 17% to 6% by the year 2000, and the population had stabilised after reaching a peak in the 1990s. It also makes use of gardens in built-up areas, taking advantage of the prey found there. If available, conifers are preferred. In 17th century England, the Eurasian sparrowhawk was used by priests, reflecting their lowly status; whereas in the Middle Ages, they were favoured by ladies of noble and royal status because of their small size. The habitat conserved with gamebirds in mind also suited this species and its prey; gamekeepers' more successful efforts to wipe out the northern goshawk and pine marten – predators of the Eurasian sparrowhawk – may have benefited it. The shikra is very similar in appearance to other sparrowhawk species including the Chinese goshawk and Eurasian sparrowhawk. Because of the overlap in sizes, the female can be confused with the similarly-sized male northern goshawk, but lacks the bulk of that species. Juvenile Eurasian Sparrowhawk showing the yellow eye, orbital ring and cere, white supercilium, and coarse brown barring on the breast and belly, Finland, 31 October 2008. Juveniles have “V” shaped markings on the underparts. The Eurasian sparrowhawk is a small bird of prey with short, broad wings and a long tail, both adaptations to manoeuvring through trees. A. n. granti A. n. melaschistos A. n. nisosimilis A. n. nisus A. n. punicus A. n. wolterstorffi. The results of the study indicated that patterns of year-to-year songbird population change were the same at different sites, whether the predators were present or not. Four or five pale blue, brown-spotted eggs are laid; the success of the breeding attempt is dependent on the female maintaining a high weight while the male brings her food. Eurasian reed warblers were found to be more aggressive to cuckoos which looked less hawk-like, meaning that the resemblance to the hawk (mimicry) helps the cuckoo to access the nests of potential hosts. Facts: Scientific name: Accipiter badius Mass: 130 g Encyclopedia of Life , By 24–28 days after hatching, the young birds start to perch on branches near the nest and take their first flight.  Though they receive the same amount of food, male chicks (roughly half the size of females) mature more quickly and seem to be ready to leave the nest sooner.  Another study, which examined the effects of predators – including the Eurasian sparrowhawk and introduced grey squirrel – on UK passerine populations, found that "whilst a small number of associations may suggest significant negative effects between predator and prey species, for the majority of the songbird species examined there is no evidence that increases in common avian predators or grey squirrels are associated with large-scale population declines. The young hawks disperse after their parents stop provisioning them.  Sub-lethal effects of these substances include irritability, convulsions and disorientation. , A widespread species throughout the temperate and subtropical parts of the Old World, the Eurasian sparrowhawk is resident or breeds in an estimated global range of 23,600,000 km2 (9,100,000 sq mi) and had an estimated population of 1.5 million birds in 2009. After the post-fledging period, female birds dispersed greater distances than did males.  The famous list in the mediaeval Book of Saint Albans refers to the female sparrowhawk as the "priest's bird" and the musket as "the clerk's bird". Falconers have utilised the Eurasian sparrowhawk since at least the 16th century; although the species has a reputation for being difficult to train, it is also praised for its courage. It very much resembles Crested Goshawk, but is smaller, lacks crest, and has longer and finer legs. The African forms may represent a separate species but have usually been considered as subspecies of the shikra. The shikra (Accipiter badius) is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae found widely distributed in Asia and Africa where it is also called the little banded goshawk.The African forms may represent a separate species but have usually been considered as subspecies of the shikra. Males tend to take smaller birds, including tits, finches, and sparrows; females catch primarily thrushes and starlings, but are capable of killing birds weighing 500 g (18 oz) or more. • Short primary projection, primary tip reaching the third bar.  A confusion species in China is the besra, although A. n. melaschistos is considerably larger.  Studies of racing pigeon deaths found that Eurasian sparrowhawks were responsible for less than 1%. Lovely! Eurasian Sparrow-hawk (Accipiter nisus) • It is a migratory accipiter which looks similar to Shikra. Shikra is one of three small Accipiter species to occur within the WP, the others being the familiar Eurasian Sparrowhawk and the less readily encountered Levant Sparrowhawk. , Many studies, mostly short-term, failed to find an effect on songbird populations caused by predatory birds such as Eurasian sparrowhawks. The Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), also known as the northern sparrowhawk or simply the sparrowhawk, is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae.  The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds bought its Coombes Valley nature reserve in Staffordshire because it was the only Eurasian sparrowhawk breeding site left in the English Midlands.